Notes of Constitution of India (Static GK Material for Competitive Exams)

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Table Of Content

Constitution of India

Framing of Constitution

  • The inaugural meeting of Constituent Assembly was held on 9 December 1946. Dr. Sachidanand was the first Chairman Constituent Assembly.
  • Rajendra Prasad was elected as the President on 11 December 1946.
  • The Constituent Assembly then appointed a Drafting Committee under the Chairmanship of Cr. Bhimrao Ambedkar, the Law Minister and the leader of the Scheduled Castes.
  • The Constituent Adviser of the Assembly was Shri B.N. Rau.
  • The First draft of the Constitution of India was enacted, signed and adopted by Constituent Assembly on 26 November 1949.
  • On 26 January 1950, the Constitution of India and India became Republic. The date, 26 January 1950 is also referred to as ‘date of the commencement’ of the Constitution.
  • The Constituent Assembly took 11 sessions. The Constitution got completed in 2 years, 11 months and 18 days.
  • The Constitution was formed after referring to Constitutions of more than 60 countries and incurring an expense of over Rs. 64 lakhs.
  • The Constitution initially had 395 articles and only 8 schedules. At present Constitution of India has 448 articles in 25 parts and 12 schedules. There are 101 amendments have been made in the Indian Constitution.
  • The Constituent Assembly adopted National Flag on 22 July 1947.
  • It adopted National Anthem and National Song on 24 January 1950. Constituent Assembly operated as provisional Parliament of India till the creation of new Parliament after the first General elections in 1951-1952.

Salient features of the Constitution of India

  • It is the longest written Constitution in the world.
  • It guarantees single citizenship to all the citizens of its 29 states and 7 union territories.
  • It proclaims India as a Sovereign Democratic Republic.
  • Indian Constitution guarantee fundamental rights to all the citizens of India. There are 6 fundamental rights
    (a) Right to Equality (b) Right to Freedom (c) Right to Freedom of Religion (d) Cultural and Educational Rights (e) Right against Exploitation (f) Right to Constitutional Remedies.
  • It established the Parliamentary System of Government, that is, the President of the Union is the Constitutional head, the Council of Ministers or the Union Cabinet is the real executive and is responsible to the Lok Sabha.
  • The Constitution along with giving fundamental rights also mentions fundamental duties in its Article 51 A of Part IV A.
  • Constitution declares India as a secular state.
  • The Constitution of India is Quasi-Federal i.e. Federal in form but unitary in spirit (in emergencies).
  • It introduces adult franchise, that is every citizen of India who is above 18 years has a right to vote.
  • It established an integrated as well as independent judiciary, the Supreme Court acts as a guardian of the Constitution.
  • The Constitution of India is neither too rigid nor too flexible. As some amendments can be made by a simple majority and some require special majority for amendments.

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