History Notes Part IV – Important Dynasty (Static GK Material for Competitive Exams)

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Important History notes, Lucent G.K. material for History,Important Cultural, Political, Economic and Religious Facts about Indus Valley Civilization, Vedic period, Gupta period, Mauryan Dynasty, Gupta Dynasty, The Chola Kingdom, History Notes, History Notes for Competitive Exams. Important Dynasties of Ancient India and Medieval India, Gupta Period, One Liners for History, Origin of Buddhism, Origin of Jainism, Gautam Buddha, Mahavira. 

Important Cultural, Political, Economic and Religious Facts about Ancient History

Indus Valley Civilization

  • Weapons of war like axes, spears, daggers, bows and arrows were made of stones.
  • Agriculture, fishing, hunting and rearing of animals was the main source of livelihood of Indus people.
  • Ornaments of silver, gold, ivory, copper and precious stones were used.
  • Double-storey building and drainage system were in existence during Indus civilization.Bricks and mortar was used for construction of buildings.
  • Mother Goddess, Pashupati, trees, stones and animals were worshiped.
  • Lion was not known to Indus people.
  • The origin of symbol Swastik is credited to Indus Civilization.

Vedic Period

  • Vedic people lived in villages. Each village had a chief called gramini. A group of village made the ‘vis’ and a group of ‘vis’ made a ‘jana’ (tribe).
  • Aryans spoke Sanskrit and lived in groups. Cattle was the chief source of wealth.
  • Aryans worshipped the Sun,water, fire etc.
  • During later Vedic period the religion was made very complicated by Brahmins. Only Brahmins could perform religious ceremonies during later Vedic period.
  • People revolted against Brahmins because of their monopolized religion.


  • Buddhism is the fourth greatest religion in the world. Ashoka the great embraced Buddhism.
  • Originated in India Buddhism spread to neighboring countries like Myanmar,Japan, Sri Lanka, Vietnam and Thailand.
  • Buddhism was founded by Gautama Siddhartha, who was a Kshatriya Prince of Saka clan.
    Siddhartha was born in 567 BC at Lumbini in Nepal and was the son of king of Kapilavastu.
  • He left his family at the age of 29 in search of truth. After wandering for 7 years he received enlightenment at Bodh Gaya under a people tree.
  • He delivered his first sermon at Sarnath in Benaras.
  • He died at the age of 80 in 487 BC at Kushinagar in Deoria district of Uttar Pradesh.
  • According to Buddha one should follow a ‘Eight fold path’ which consists of Right faith, Right thought, Right action, Right livelihood, Right efforts, Right speech, Right remembrance and Right concentration.
  • After death of Buddha five Buddhist Councils were held:
    1. At Rajaghira in 483 BC under king Ajatashatru.
    2. At Vaishali in 383 BC under king Kalashoka.
    3. At Patliputra in 326 BC under king Ashoka.
    4. At Tambapanni in 29 BC under king Vattagamami.
    5. At Kashmir in 72 AD under king Kanishka.


  • Jainism was founded by Rishabha in 6th century BC.
  • Rishabha was the father of king Bharata, the first Chakravarti of India. Jainism became a major religion of India under the 24th Prophet of Jainism or 24th Tirthankara named Vardhamana Mahavira.
  • Mahavira was the son of Siddhartha and Trishala the Lichchhavi Princess.
  • He was born in 540 BC at Kundagrama in Vaishali.
  • He died at the age of 72 in 468 BC.
  • Two Jain Councils were held one at Patliputra and second at Valabhi in 5th century AD.

Maurya Period

  • Kautilya’s Arthasastra is most important literary source for the Mauryan history.
  • Mauryas maintained a large army and navy.
  • The king was the head of the Administration. He was assisted by a Mantri Parishad.
  • Megasthenes was a Greek Ambassador to Chandragupta’s court who wrote Megasthenes account of India called Indica.
  • Ashoka’s Pillars and Pillar Capitals were constructed during Ashoka’s reign. Four lion capital at Sarnath was adopted as ‘National Emblem’ of India on 26 Jan 1950.

Gupta Period

  • Architecture was divided into three categories:
    1. Rock-cut caves 2. Structural Temples
    3. Stupas
  • Bagh caves in MP and Ajanta Caves in Maharashtra have masterpieces of paintings of Gupta Period.
  • Nagara Style and Shikhar Style temples were constructed during this period.
  • Gupta’s issued largest number of Gold coins and good number of silver coins.
  • The first example of Sati appears in Gupta period in 510 AD.
  • Chandragupta II court had Nine Gems. Dhanvantri, Kalidasa and Harisen were the important gems.

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