History Notes Part VII – Important Dynasty (Static GK Material for Competitive Exams)

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African Traveller Ibn Batuta, Important History notes, Lucent G.K. material for History, Khilji Dynasty,  Jalaluddin khilji, Alauddin Khilji , The Delhi Sultanate, Khilji Dynasty, History Notes, History Notes for Competitive Exams, Important Dynasties of Medieval India, Alai Darwaza, Tuglaq Dynasty, One Liners for History. 

Khilji Dynasty (1290-1320 AD)

Jalaluddin Khilji (1290-1296)

  • Jalaluddin Khilji founded the Khilji Dynasty.
  • After Kaiqubad was paralyzed, his infant son was named his successor.
  • Jalaluddin Khilji became the regent and a few months later became the new Sultan.
  • He was around 70 years old when he got the throne. he was a humble and kind to general public.
  • Jalal-ud-din was assassinated by his nephew Ali Gurshasp, who ascended the throne as Alauddin Khilji.

Alauddin Khilji (1256-1316)

  • Alauddin was the nephew of Jalal-ud-din Khilji. He ascended the throne after killing Sultan in 1296.
  • He invaded Devagiri, and conquered Warangal and Mysore.
  • Alauddin was the first Sultan of Delhi who separated religion from politics.He proclaimed ‘Kingship knows no Kinship’. He fixed the cost of all commodities.
  • He set up three markets at Delhi, one market for food grains, second market for costly clothes and third market for horses, slaves and cattle.
  • A officer called Shahna maintained a register of all merchants and shopkeepers and prices.
  • Two officers Diwan-i-Riyasat and Shahna-i-Mandi kept check on market. Goods for sale was brought to an open market called Sara-i-Adal.
  • He constructed the entrance gate of Qutub Minar- Alai Darwaza.
  • Amir Khusru, the poet and musician was his favourite court poet.
  • Alauddin died in 1316. After his death Malik Kafur seized the throne.
  • Before Kafur’s death he nominated Alauddin’s 6 years old son Shihabuddin as king and imprisoned Alauddin’s eldest prince Mubarak Khan.

Mubarak Khan (1316-1320)

  • After death of Kafur, Mubarak Khan was freed from prison.
  • He captured the throne but could rule only for a year.
  • He gave authority of army and palace guard to his lover Mubarak Hassan who soon gained control over Sultan’s palace.
  • Mubarak Hassan was given title Khusrau Khan by Sultan.
  • Khusrau Khan killed Mubarak Khan and assumed the title of Nasiruddin in mid-1320.

Khusrau Khan (1320)

  • Khusrau Khan was killed by Ghazi Malik, Governor of Dipalpur when he tried to oppose rebellion by Ghazi Malik and his son Fakhr-ud-din Jauna.
  • This brought the end of Khilji dynasty in Delhi and rise of Tughlaq dynasty at the throne of Delhi.

The Tughlaq Dynasty (1320-1414 AD)

Ghiyas-ud-din Tughlaq (1320-1325)

  • The last king of Khilji dynasty was killed by Ghazi Malik and Ghazi Malik ascended the throne assuming the title Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq.
  • Ghiyas-ud-din Tughlaq died in an accident and his son Jauna (Ulugh Khan) succeeded him under the title Mohammad-bin-Tughlaq.

Mohammad-bin-Tughlaq (1325-1351)

  • Mohammad-bin-Tughlaq ascended the throne in 1325.
  • He introduced many reforms. He had to face revolts due to failure of his reforms. His ambitious projects resulted in revolts and debts.
  • He increased the taxation on the land in the Doab between Ganges and Yamuna. He also imposed additional taxes Ghari (house tax) and Charahi (pasture tax).
  • He introduced a new department of Agriculture called Diwan-i-Kohi.
  • He shifted the capital from Delhi to Devagiri. He wanted to make Devagiri second capital so that he could control South India better.
  • Devagiri was thus named Daulatabad.
  • After a couple of years he shifted his capital back to Delhi.
  • He introduced bronze coins which had same value as silver coins. Soon people started forging bronze coins and new coins began to be greatly devalued in markets.
  • Finally he has to withdraw the new token currency. He promised to exchange bronze coins to silver coins. This resulted in fall of kingdom’s wealth.
  • His projects resulted in revolts from different parts of his kingdom.
  • He died in Thatta while campaigning in Sindh against Thagi, a Turkish slave.

Firoz Shah Tughlaq (1351-1388)

  • Firoz Shah was the cousin of Mohammad-bin-Tughlaq. After the death of Mohammad-bin-Tughlaq he was selected as the new Sultan by the nobles and theologians.
  • After his accession Firoz Shah Tughlaq has to face many problems.
  • He decreed that whenever a noble died his son should be allowed to succeed his position, if he had no sons his son-in-law and in his absence his slave was be succeed.
  • He built cities of Fatehabad, Hisar, Jaunpur and Firozabad.
  • He established a hospital at Delhi described as Dar-ul-shifta.
  • He set up a new department Diwan-i-Khairat for marriage of poor girls.
  • Khan-i-Jahan Maqbul was his Prime Minister who helped Firoz Shah Tughlaq to rule with peace and tranquility.
  • Firoz Shah died in 1388.

The Tughlaq dynasty could not survive after the death of Firoz Shah Tughlaq. The Malwa, Gujarat and Jaunpur kingdoms broke away from Delhi Sultanate.

Timur Invasion (1398-1399)

  • Timur, a Turkish Chief and cruel conquerer from Mangolia and descendant of Chengiz Khan, invaded India in 1398.
  • He mercilessly sacked and plundered Delhi.
  • Timur left a nominee named Khizr Khan to rule Punjab.
  • Timur died in 1404 on his way to conquer China.

Ibn Batuta

  • Ibn Batuta was an African traveller.
  • He visited India during the reign of Tughlaq Dynasty in 1333.
  • He was appointed as Chief Qasi of Delhi by the Sultan and as his ambassador to China in 1342.

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