History Notes Part V – Important Dynasty (Static GK Material for Competitive Exams)

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Important History notes, Lucent G.K. material for History, Harshavardhana Empire, Hiuen- Tsang Chinese pilgrim, The Rajputs, The Andras, The Chalukyas, Vijaynagar Empire, The Chola Dynasty, History Notes, History Notes for Competitive Exams, Important Dynasties of Ancient India and Medieval India, Vardhana Dynasty, One Liners for History. 


Vardhana Dynasty was founded by Pushyabhuti at Thaneswar ( in Haryana) at the beginning of 6th century.
The first important ruler of Vardhana Dynasty was Prabhakaravardhana.


  • Rajyavardhana was the eldest son and successor of Prabhakaravardhana.
  • He undertook a campaign against Deva Gupta, who had killed the husband of Rajyavardhana sister Rajyashri and abducted her.
  • Rajyavardhana killed Deva Gupta, ruler of Malwa but he was killed by Shashanka in 606 AD.

Harshavardhana (606-647 AD)

  • Harshavardhana, the younger brother of Rajyavardhana ascended the throne in 606 AD and from this Harsha Era started.
  • Harshavardhana was also known as Siladitya.
  • He rescued his widow sister Rajyashri from forest unified Kannauj with Thaneswar.
  • Harshavardhana moved his capital from Thaneswar to Kannauj.
  • His empire was vast and strong. He conquered Bengal, Malwa, eastern Rajasthan and entire Gangetic plain upto Assam.
  • Hiuen-Tsang, a Chinese pilgrim visited India during Harsha’s reign.
  • Harshavardhana was initially a Hindu but later on converted to Buddhism. According to Hiuen – Tsang he honoured gods of other sects.
  • Harsha was an accomplished author. He wrote three Sanskrit plays – Nagananda, Ratnavali and Priyadarsika.
  • Banabhatta and Kadambari were his court poets. Banabhatta is the author of Harsha Charitra.
  • He died in 647 AD and was succeeded by his minister Arunashva.

THE RAJPUTS (650-1200 AD)

After Harshavardhana, Rajputs emerged as powerful rulers in North and Central India. They ruled nearly 500 years from 7th century.

Prithviraj Chauhan 

  • Prithviraj ruled over Delhi and Agra and fought two important battle.
  • The first battle of Tarain was fought in 1191 between Prithviraj Chauhan and Mohammad Ghori in which Mohd. Ghori was defeated.
  • The second battle of Tarain was fought in 1192 when Ghori again invaded India. He defeated and captured Prithviraj Chauhan.
  • The battle of Tarain has a great significance in Indian History as it led to the establishment Muslim rule over North India and then to South India for several centuries.

Jai Chand Rathore 

  • Jai Chand was the last ruler of Rajput Dynasty. He was killed by Ghori in Battle of Chandawar in 1194.
  • Lack of unity, caste system and defective millitary organization led to the decline of Rajput kingdom.

Rana Kumbha

  • Rana Khumba was the Sisodiya ruler of Mewar. He ruled from 1433 – 1468.
  • He was the famous ruler of Mewar. He defeated Mohammad Khilji and erected the Vijay Stambha or the Tower of Victory in Chittor.
  • His successors were Rana Sanga and Rana Pratap who were also the great kings of Mewar.


  • Andras gained independence after death of Ashoka. They are known to be the earliest rulers of the Deccan.
  • The earliest rulers of Andras was ‘Krishna’.
  • Puluyma was their last powerful ruler and Yagnashathakashi was the last king.
  • Their rule ended in AD 225.

THE CHALUKYAS (6th Century – 12th Century)

The Chalukyas ruled over Deccan. The famous rulers of this dynasty were :

Pulakesin I (563-567 AD)

  • Pulakesin was the first independent ruler of Badami with Vatapi in Bijapur as the capital.

Pulakesin II (610-642 AD)

  • Pulakesin II was the grandson of Pulakesin I. He was the most important ruler of the Chalukyas.
  • He increased the kingdom by annexing the entire Andra Kingdom.
  • He defeated Harshavardhana on the banks of the Narmada.
  • Vinyaditya (681-696 AD) and Vikramaditya II (733-745 AD) were important rulers of Chalukya Dynasty.

The Chola Dynasty (850-1279 AD)

  • The founder of Chola dynasty was Vijayalaya. He captured Tanjore in 850 AD.
  • This dynasty ruled over Madras and parts of Karnataka. The capital of Chola Dynasty was Tanjore and Gangaikondacholapuram.
  • Rajaraja and his son Rajendra I were the greatest Chola rulers.
  • Rajaraja built Vrihadeshwar temple at Tanjore which is attributed to Shiva.
  • Rajendra I conquered Orissa, Burma, Bengal and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. He assumed the title of Gangaikondachola.
  • The last ruler of Chola dynasty was Rajendra III.
  • Malik Kafur invaded the Tamil state which led to the decline of Chola Empire.

Vijaynagar Empire (1336-1564 AD)

  • The Vijaynagar Empire was founded by the Five Sons of South Indian Hindu Sangama of whom Harihar and Bukka were prominent.
  • The kingdom lay in Deccan to south of Bahmani Kingdom.
  • Krishnadevaraya was the most important ruler of this Kingdom. He ruled between 1505 and 1529 AD.
  • Devaraya I and Devaraya II were other important rulers.
  • Second Battle of Talikota led to the complete collapse of Vijaynagar Empire.

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