History Notes Part XXIV – Important Events (Static GK Material for Competitive Exams)

Print Friendly, PDF & Email

Khilafat Movement, Non Cooperation Movement, Simon Commission, Swaraj Party, Chauri Chaura incident, Ali Brothers, Mohammad Ali, Shaukat Ali, Lucent G.K. material for History, Pearson Study Material, History Notes, History Notes for Competitive Exams,Subsidiary Alliance, One Liners for History.

Important Events

Khilafat Movement (1920-22)

  • Khilafat Movement aroused in India in 1920 as a result of Muslim fears for the integrity of Islam.
  • The Caliph Sultan of Turkey was the religious head of the Muslims Community worldwide.
  • During the first world war, after the defeat of Turkey the safety and welfare of Turkey was threatened by the British thereby weakening the Caliph’s position.
  • As a result Indian Muslims adopted the aggressive anti-British attitude.
  • The Ali Brothers, viz Mohammad Ali and Shaukat Ali launched a campaign in defense of Caliph in 1920.
  • The campaign as known as Khilafat Movement and was for the restoration of the Khilafat.
  • Maulana Abul Kalam Azad also led the movement. The movement was also supported by Gandhiji.

Non-Cooperation Movement

  • Non-Cooperation Movement was launched after the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre. It was led by Mahatma Gandhi.
  • At the Calcutta session in Sep. 1920, the congress voted in favour of the Non-Cooperation Movement and defined as its ultimate aim.
  • It aimed to resist the British Rule in India through non-violent means or ‘Ahimsa’. All the offices and factories would be closed.
  • The Indians surrendered the titles and honorary offices and resignated from the offices.
  • The lawyers left the courts, people refused to attend the government darbars and official functions.
  • Public transportation and English -manufactured goods, especially clothing was boycotted.
  • Gandhiji along with the Ali brothers undertook a nationwide tour during addressing of meetings.
  • The educational boycott was specially successful in Bengal with Punjab too, responding under the leadership of Lala Lajpat Rai.
  • Major lawyers like Motilal Nehru, C. Rajagopalachari, C.R. Das, Saifuddin Kitchulu, Vallabh Bhai Patel, Aruna Asaf Ali, etc. boycotted law courts.
  • The movement saw boycotting of foreign clothes and usage of Indian materials. On Nov 17,1921, during the visit of the Prince of Wales, Indian greeted him with empty streets and downed shutters wherever he went.

Chauri Chaura incident

  • A large number of protesters participating in the cooperation movement clashed with the police, who opened fire at Chauri Chaura in Gorakhpur district of modern Uttar Pradesh.
  • In retaliation the angry peasants attacked and set fire to the local police station on 5 Feb 1922.
  • The incident led to the death of three civilians and 22 or 23 policemen.
  • Mahatma Gandhi, who was strictly against the violence withdrew the Non-Cooperation Movement on 12 Feb 1922.

Swaraj Party

  • Chittranjan Das and Motilal Nehru organised the Swaraj party to sought greater self-government and political freedom from the British rule.
  • Chittranjan Das and Motilal Nehru proposed an alternative program of diverting the movement from civil disobedience movement and encouraging its members to enter into legislative councils by contesting the elections with a view of obstructing a foreign government and to use moral pressure to compel the authority to concede to the popular demand for the Swaraj.
  • During the elections of 1923, the Swaraj party captured 45 out of total 145 seats. In Central province they secured a clear majority. In Bengal the largest party was Swaraj Party.
  • The Swaraj party leaders demanded the release of all the political prisoners, provincial autonomy, repealing of the repressive laws imposed by the government during the legislatures.
  • The party disintegrated after the death of C.R. Das in 1925-1928.

Simon Commission (1927)

  • The Indian Statutory Commission commonly known as Simon Commission was appointed in Nov 1927 for the task to report the India’s constitutional progress for introducing constitutional reforms.
  • The Commission was a group of seven British members under the chairmanship of Sir John Allsebrook Simon.
  • The Simon Commission which had all whites was opposed by Indians.
  • It met with protest in every major Indian city it visited. Wherever it visited, there were cries of ‘Simon Go Back’.
  • Prominent Indian leader Lala Lajpat Rai led a protest in Lahore. He suffered a police beating during the protest, and died of his injuries two weeks later.
  • To seek avenge Bhagat Singh and his comrades killed a white police official, Saunders, in Dec 1928.

Also Read :

You may also like...