History Notes Part VIII – Sayyid Dynasty and Lodhi Dynasty and Bahmani Kingdom (Static GK Material for Competitive Exams)

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The Sayyid Dynasty (1414-1450 AD)

Khizr Khan (1414-1421)

  • Sayyid Dynasty was founded by Khizr Khan who was nominee of Timur, who plundered Delhi in 1398.
  • Khizr Khan captureed Delhi and proclaimed himself as new Sultan.
  • He ruled Delhi and surrounding districts.

Mubarak Shah (1414-1434)

  • Mubarak Shah succeeded Khizr Khan at the throne after his successful expeditions against Mewatis, Katehars and Gangetic doab.
  • Mubarak Shah was killed in his court by the nobles.

Muhammad Shah (1414-1443)

  • He was put on the throne by the nobles. But he can not survive due to the in-fighting among the nobles.
  • Muhammad Shah was only given a area of around 30 miles while the rest of the Sultanate was ruled by the nobles.

Alam Shah (1443-1451)

  • Alam Shah was the last Sayyid King. He descended in favour of Bahlul Lodhi and himself retired.
  • Thus the Sayyid dynasty ended and the Lodhi dynasty came to the throne of Delhi and ruled Delhi and a few surrounding areas.

The Lodhi Dynasty (1451-1526 AD)

Bahlul Lodhi (1451-1488 AD)

  • Bahlul Lodhi was the founder of the Lodhi Dynasty.
  • He was among one of the Afgan Sardars who established himself in Punjab after the invasion of Timur.

Sikander Lodhi (1489-1517 AD)

  • Sikander Lodhi was the son of sultan Bahlul Lodhi and Bibi Ambha. He was made Sultan after Bahlul Lodhi.
  • He was a capable ruler who conquered Bihar, Gwalior and Western Bengal.
  • He encouraged trade across his territory but discriminated against Hindu subjects.
  • He was a fanatical Muslim and broke the sacred idols of the Jawalamukhi Temple at Nagar Kot and ordered the temples of Mathura to be destroyed.
  • He founded the city of Agra and shifted his capital from Delhi to Agra.
  • He was also a poet of Persian language and prepared a Diwan of 9000 verses. He composed poems in Persian with pen-name ‘Gulrukhi’.
  • Sikandar Lodhi took keen interest in development of Agriculture. He introduced Gaz-i-Sikandari of 32 digits for measuring cultivated fields.
  • He died in 1517.

Ibrahim Lodhi (1517-1526 AD)

  • Ibrahim Lodhi became the Sultan of Delhi after the death of his father Sikandar Lodhi.
  • He was the last king of the Lodhi dynasty.
  • Ibrahim Lodhi asserted the absolute power of Sultan. He replaced the old and senior commandants with new and younger ones which displeased the nobles.
  • He faced a number of rebellions due his brave moves and individualistic tendencies.
  • At last Daulat Khan Lodhi, the governor of Punjab invited Babur, the king of Kabulistan (Kabul, present Afganistan) to overthrow Ibrahim Lodhi.
  • Babur accepted the offer and inflicted a crushing defeat on Ibrahim Lodhi in the first Battle of Panipat.
  • Ibrahim Lodhi was killed in the battle with ended the Lodhi dynasty and Delhi Sultanate, thus era of Mughal rule commenced.

Causes of Decline of Delhi Sultanate

  • Degeneration of Delhi Sultanate.
  • The wild project undertaken by Mohammad bin Tughlaq which resulted in loss of Sultanate’s wealth.
  • Financial Instability vastness of empire and poor communication which could not controlled effectively.
  • There was a huge increase in number of slaves during the reign of Firoz Shah Tughlaq which was a burden on treasury.

First Battle of Panipat

  • The first battle of Panipat was fought between the forces of Ibrahim Lodhi and Babur.
  • Babur forces number around 25,000-30,000 men and had between 20 and 14 pieces of field artillery.
  • First Battle of Panipat established the Mughal dynasty in India.

Administration, Art and Architecture under Delhi Sultanate

  • Diwan-i-Wizarat was the Department of Finance.
  • Diwan-i-Ishthiaq founded by Firoz Shah Tughlaq was department of Persions.
  • Diwan-i-Riyasat was department of commerce founded by Alauddin Khilji.
  • Diwan-i-Ariz was the department of military.
  • Moth ki Masjid erected by Prime Minister of Sikander Lodhi has double domes, which was the main feature of Lodhi Architecture.
  • Tomb of Ghiyasuddin Balban is in Mehrauli (Delhi).
  • The author of Tahqiq-i-Hind is Alberuni.
  • Laila-Majnu, Khaizain-ul-Futuh, Tughlaq-Nama and Nuh-Siphir are the books written by Amir Khusrau, the court poet of Alauddin Khilji.

Saluva Dynasty (1485-1505)

  • Saluva dynasty was founded by Saluva Narshima. The last ruler was Immadi Narshima.

Tuluva Dynasty (1505-1570)

  • Tuluva Dynasty was founded by Vir Narsimha, the son of Narsa Nayaka.
  • Vir Narsimha killed Immadi Narsimha, the last ruler of Saluva dynasty.

Bahmani Kingdom

Alauddin Hasan Bahman

  • Bahmani kingdom was founded by Alauddin Hasan Bahman Shah. He was also known as Hasan Gangu.
  • The capital of Bahmani Kingdom was at Gulbarga.

Tajuddin Firoz Shah (1397-1422)

  • He was the greatest ruler of Bahmani kingdom.
  • He paid much attention to ports of his kingdom which attracted trade ships from Persian Gulfard Relsen.

Ahmad Shah Wali (1422-1435)

  • He transferred the capital from Gulbarga to Bidar.

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