History Notes Part VI – Important Dynasty (Static GK Material for Competitive Exams)

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Important History notes, Lucent G.K. material for History, Muslims and Turk invasions,  Mohammad Ghori, Ghazi malik , The Delhi Sultanate, Slave Dynasty, Khilji Dynasty, History Notes, History Notes for Competitive Exams, Important Dynasties of Medieval India, Qutubuddin Aibak, Iltutmish, One Liners for History. 

Muslim and Turk Invasions

  • Mohammad Bin Qasim’s Invasion – First Muslim Invansion
    Mohjammad Bin Qasim invaded India in 712 and conquered Sindh which became the province of Omayyad Khilafat.
  • Mahmud Ghaznavi’s Invasion – First Turk Invasion
    Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni led about 17 expeditions to India for two reasons one was to spread Islam in India and other was to enrich himself by taking the wealth away from India.
    In 1025 AD, he attacked the most celebrated temple of Somnath. Somnath temple lies on the coast in the south of Kathiwar. The temple was destroyed in 1026 AD.
  • Mohammad Ghori Invasion – Second Turk Invasion(1175-1206 AD)
    Mohammad Ghori invaded India and laid the foundation of Muslim rule in India. He was defeated by Prithviraj Chauhan in first invasion but in second invasion he defeated Prithviraj Chauhan in second battle of Tarrain in 1912. He is said to be the founder of Muslim rule in India.

The Sultanate Period (1206-1526 AD)

The Sultanate Perood can be divided into five distinct periods
(a) The Slave Dynasty                                                                                                               (b) The Sayyid Dynasty
(c) The Khilji Dynasty                                                                                                                  (d) The Lodhi Dynasty
(e) The Tuglaq Dynasty

The Slave Dynasty (1206-1290 AD)

The founder of Slave Dynasty was Qutubuddin Aibak.

Qutubuddin Aibak (1206-1210 AD)

  • Qutubuddin Aibak was a Turkish slave purchased by Mohammad Ghori. He was later made the governer by Mohammad Ghori.
  • After the death of Mohammad Ghori, Qutubuddin became the master of Hindustan and founded the Slave dynasty.
  • He was given the title of Lakh Baksh for his generosity.
  • He died in 1210 AD while playing Polo or Chaugan.
  • Aibak constructed two mosques one in Delhi and other in Ajmer. He started the construction of Qutub Minar, in honour of a Sufi Saint Khwaja Qutubuddin Bakhtiyar Kaki.

Shamsuddin Iltutmish (1211-1236 AD)

  • After the death of Aibak his son Aram Baksh came to the throne. Iltutmish, the slave of Aibak occupied the throne of Delhi in 1211 after deposing Aram Baksh.
  • Iltutmish shifted the capital from Lahore to Delhi.
  • He is said to be the real founder of Slave dynasty. He saved Delhi from Chengiz Khan.
  • He introduced silver coins-tanka and copper coins-jital. He introduced Iqta system and set up an official nobility of slaves known as Chalisa, a group of 40.
  • He construction of Qutub-Minar which was started by Qutubuddin Aibak.

Rukh-ud-din (1236)

  • Rukh-ud-din was the son of Iltutmish and was crowned by his mother, Shah Tukran, after the death of his father Iltutmish.
  • He was deposed by Razia Sultan when he went out of town to check a rebellion against him.

Razia Sultan (1236-1239)

  • Razia Sultan was the daughter of Iltutmish. Iltutmish nominated her to be his successor but the nobles were not ready to accept her as their Sultan so they crowned Rukn-ud-din.
  • However Razia deposed Rukn-ud-din and ascended the throne. She was a brave ruler and popular among people.
  • She fell in love with her Abyssin slave Jamal-ud-din Yakut and married him.
  • Many people revolted against her. Governors of Bhadaun, Lahore, Multan and Hansi openly revolted against her. To check a serious rebellion by Governor of Bhatinda she marched with Yakut to Bhatinda.
  • Yakut was murdered by Altunia and Razia was imprisoned.
  • Razia married Altunia and marched to Delhi to recapture throne from her brother Muizud-din Bahram but her brother killed her by conspiring against her.

Bahram Shah (1240-1242 AD)

  • After death of Razia Sultan Bahram Shah was put to the throne by the powerful group of Chalisa.
  • He was considered only as de jure ruler, while Naib-e-Mamlakat (head of Chalisa) was de-facto ruler.
  • Bahram Shah lost his life after he failed to assert his authority on the throne.

Masud Shah (1242-1246)

  • He was the son of Rukn-ud-din, but he was disposed due to a conspiracy by Malika-e-Jahan.
  • Balban and Malika-e-Jahan established Nasir-ud-din as the Sultan.

Nasir-ud-din Shah (1246-66)

  • He was son of Iltutmish and Malika-e-Jahan.
  • He was known as Darvesi king as he was very pious and noble. He died in 1266.

Ghiyasuddin Balban (1266-1287)

  • He ascended the throne in 1266.
  • Balban broke the powerful group Chalisa. This was his greatest contribution to the stability of Delhi Sultanate.
  • He appointed spies to remain informed about his people and other conspiracies.
  • He established military department Diwan-i-Arz. He took up the title of Zil-i-Ilahi which means Shadow of God.
  • He introduced Sijda and Paibos as forms of Saluatation before the Monarch.
  • He died fighting Mongolians in 1285 while his closest and most loved slave Tugril was captured and beheaded.

Kaiqubad (1287-1290)

  • Kaiqubad was the grandson of Balban and was made Sultan by, the kotwal of Delhi, Fakruddin.
  • But Kaiqubad was killed by the Khilji family, which saw the end of slave or Ilbari dynasty and beginning of Khilji Dynasty at Delhi Sultanate.

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