History Notes Important Dynasties Part I – Static Science GK Material for Competitive exams like SSC, Railways etc
History Notes, Important Dynasties, Vedic Period, Indus Valley Civilization, G. K. notes for Exams, G.K. for RRB group D.
Table Of Content
Indus Valley Civilization (2500 BC to 1750 BC)
- John Marshall used the term Indus Civilization for the first time.
- Port cities of Indus Civilization were Lothal, Kuntasi, Sutkagendor, Balakot, Allahdion.
- Capital cities were Harappa and Mohenjodaro.
- Mohenjodaro was the largest site of Indus Civilization.
- The Harappan people were first to produce cotton.
- Iron was not known to people of Indus Civilization.
- This civilization belongs to Chalcolithic Age or Bronze age.
Vedic Period (1500 BC to 600 BC )
- Vedic Literature consists of four literary works – The Vedas, The Brahamans, The Aranyakas and The Upanishads.
- There are four Vedas – Rig Veda, Sama Veda, Yajur Veda and Atharva Veda.
- Rig Veda – Aitareya and Kaushitiki Brahamana.
- Sam Veda Panchvisha, Shadvinsh, Chhandogya and Jaiminaya Brahamana.
- Yajur Veda – Shatapatha and Taittariya Brahamana.
- Atharva veda – Gopatha Brahamana.
- The Upanishads are philosophical texts, they are generally called Vedanta. There are 108 Upanishads. Vrihadaranyaka is the oldest Upanishad.
- Ashtadhyayi written by Panini is the oldest grammar of the World.
- Pratishakya is the oldest text on Phonetics.
- Nirukta is the oldest dictionary of the World. It contained difficult vedic words.
Haryanka Dynasty 544-412 BC
Bimbisara 544 – 492 BC
- Bimbisara was the founder of the Hrayanka Dynasty.
- He was the contemporary of Gautam Buddha.
- He married princesses of Kosala, Lichchhavi and Madra which helped him to expand his Empire.
- He conquered Anga and built city Rajagriha.
Ajatashatru 492- 460 BC
- Ajatashatru killed his father Bimbisara and seized the throne.
- He followed aggressive policy to expand his Empire.
- He built fort of Rajagriha and a watch fort Patali on banks of Ganages.
Udayin 460 – 440 BC
- Ajatshatru was succeeded by his son Udayin.
- He laid foundation of city of Patliputra, and shifted his capital from Rajagriha to Patliputra.
- Successors of Udayin were Anuruddha, Munda and Naga – Dasak but they were all weak rulers.
Shisunaga Dynasty 412 – 344 BC
- Shisunaga, the minister of last King was elected as the King by the people.
- Under his rule Avanti became part of Magadha rule.
- He was succeeded by Kalashoka under whom Second Buddhist Council took place in Vaishali in 383 BC.
Nanda Dynasty 344 – 323 BC
- Mahapadma overthrew Shisunaga Dynasty and established Nanda Dynasty.
- They had huge army.
- Mahapadma was succeeded by eight sons.
- Last ruler was Dhanananda.
- Gautama Buddha also known as Siddhārtha Gautama was an ascetic (śramaṇa) and sage on whose teachings Buddhism was founded.
- He was born in Lumbini, Nepal. His parents were Śuddhodana and Maya.
- He taught throughout regions of eastern India such as Magadha and Kosala.
Also Read :
- Countries and their Capitals
- Nicknames of Cities of India and World
- Geography Notes Important Definitions
- Important Definitions and Laws of Physics III
- Geography Notes
- Important Definitions and Laws of Physics II
- Important Definitions and Laws of Physics
- Important Facts About Metals
- Important Chemistry Terms
- Important Discoveries and Inventions Part 2
- Important Discoveries and Inventions Part 1
- Important Elements and Their Symbols
- Cups and Trophies (Associated with Sports / Games)
- Important (India and World) Days
- List of States, Capital, Chief Ministers and Governors
- Important Books and Authors
- General Knowledge for RRB Group D 2018 Exam | Present and First of India
- Important Questions from Biology