History Notes Important Dynasties Part I – Static Science GK Material for Competitive exams like SSC, Railways etc

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History Notes, Important Dynasties, Vedic Period, Indus Valley Civilization, G. K. notes for Exams, G.K. for RRB group D.

History Notes

Indus Valley Civilization (2500 BC to 1750 BC)

  • John Marshall used the term Indus Civilization for the first time.
  • Port cities of Indus Civilization were Lothal, Kuntasi, Sutkagendor, Balakot, Allahdion.
  • Capital cities were Harappa and Mohenjodaro.
  • Mohenjodaro was the largest site of Indus Civilization.
  • The Harappan people were first to produce cotton.
  • Iron was not known to people of Indus Civilization.
  • This civilization belongs to Chalcolithic Age or Bronze age.

Vedic Period (1500 BC to 600 BC )

  • Vedic Literature consists of four literary works – The Vedas, The Brahamans, The Aranyakas and The Upanishads.
  • There are four Vedas – Rig Veda, Sama Veda, Yajur Veda and Atharva Veda.
  • Rig Veda – Aitareya and Kaushitiki Brahamana.
  • Sam Veda Panchvisha, Shadvinsh, Chhandogya and Jaiminaya Brahamana.
  • Yajur Veda – Shatapatha and Taittariya Brahamana.
  • Atharva veda – Gopatha Brahamana.
  • The Upanishads are philosophical texts, they are generally called Vedanta. There are 108 Upanishads. Vrihadaranyaka is the oldest Upanishad.
  • Ashtadhyayi written by Panini is the oldest grammar of the World.
  • Pratishakya is the oldest text on Phonetics.
  • Nirukta is the oldest dictionary of the World. It contained difficult vedic words.

Haryanka Dynasty 544-412 BC

Bimbisara 544 – 492 BC

  • Bimbisara was the founder of the Hrayanka Dynasty.
  • He was the contemporary of Gautam Buddha.
  • He married princesses of Kosala, Lichchhavi and Madra which helped him to expand his Empire.
  • He conquered Anga and built city Rajagriha.

Ajatashatru 492- 460 BC

  • Ajatashatru killed his father Bimbisara and seized the throne.
  • He followed aggressive policy to expand his Empire.
  • He built fort of Rajagriha and a watch fort Patali on banks of Ganages.

Udayin 460 – 440 BC

  • Ajatshatru was succeeded by his son Udayin.
  • He laid foundation of city of Patliputra, and shifted his capital from Rajagriha to Patliputra.
  • Successors of Udayin were Anuruddha, Munda and Naga – Dasak but they were all weak rulers.

Shisunaga Dynasty 412 – 344 BC

  • Shisunaga, the minister of last King was elected as the King by the people.
  • Under his rule Avanti became part of Magadha rule.
  • He was succeeded by Kalashoka under whom Second Buddhist Council took place in Vaishali in 383 BC.

Nanda Dynasty 344 – 323 BC

  • Mahapadma overthrew Shisunaga Dynasty and established Nanda Dynasty.
  • They had huge army.
  • Mahapadma was succeeded by eight sons.
  • Last ruler was Dhanananda. 

Gautama Buddha

  • Gautama Buddha also known as Siddhārtha Gautama was an ascetic (śramaṇa) and sage on whose teachings Buddhism was founded.
  • He was born in Lumbini, Nepal. His parents were Śuddhodana and Maya.
  • He taught throughout regions of eastern India such as Magadha and Kosala.

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