Chemistry Notes – Important Chemistry Terms – Static Science GK Material for Competitive exams

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Railway Recruitment Board has scheduled Group D Exam from 17th September 2018. To help you with your preparation we are providing Railway Group D Study Material and Notes. Here you can get notes for General Science, Current Affairs, General Knowledge, Reasoning and Quantitative Aptitude. The study material provided here will help to cover major topics for Railways Group D, ALP, SSC Exams, Insurance Exams and other Competitive Exams. You can also download PDF of the study material provided here.

Important Chemistry Terms

  • SUBLIMATION – A process of conversion of a solid into vapour without passing through the liquid state.
  • FILTRATION – A process for quick and complete removal of suspended solid particles from a liquid, by passing the mixture through a filter paper.
  • EVAPORATION – The process of conversion of liquid into its vapours at room temperature.
  • DISTILLATION – A process of converting a liquid into its vapour by heating and then condensing the vapour again into the same liquid by cooling.
  • FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION – In this process a fractionating column is used to separate two or more volatile liquid which have different boiling points. eg: Separation of petrol,diesel oil, kerosene oil etc. from crude petroleum. AVAGADRO’S NUMBER – The number 6.023*1023 is called Avagadro’s Number.
  • ATOMIC NUMBER – The number of proton or electron in an atom of the element is called atomic number.It is denoted by Z.
  • MASS NUMBER – The sum of number of protons and neutrons in an atom of the element is called mass number.It is denoted by A.
  • ISOTOPES – These are atoms of the element having the same atomic number but different mass number.
  • ISOBARS – These are atoms of the elements having the same mass number but different atomic numbers.
  • ISOELECTRONIC – These are atoms/molecules/ions containing the same number of electrons. ex:- O2-,F-,Ne,Na+.
  • ISOTONES – These are atoms of different elements having the same number of neutrons.
  • WAVE LENGTH – The distance between two consecutive crests or troughs is called wavelength.
  • FREQUENCY – The number of waves passing through a point in one second is called frequency.It is denoted by v(nu).
  • WAVE NUMBER – The number of wavelengths which can be accommodated in one centimeter length along the direction of propagation is called wave number.
  • SPECTRUM – When white light is allowed to pass through a prism, it splits into seven colours. The seven coloured band is called spectrum.
  • QUANTUM NUMBER – The set of four integers required to define an electron completely in an atom are called quantum number n,l,m,and s.
  • Mendeleev is known as father of periodic table.
  • MODERN PERIODIC LAW was given by Moseley. He stated that ”The physical and chemical properties of the elements are periodic function of their atomic numbers”.
  • OXIDATION – Oxidation is a process which involves either addition of oxygen or removal of hydrogen.
  • REDUCTION – Reduction is a process which involves either addition of hydrogen or removal of oxygen.
  • THERMOPLASTIC – These are the polymers which can be easily softened repeatedly when heated and hardened when cooled with little change in their properties.
  • THERMOSETTING PLASTICS – These are the polymers which undergo permanent change on heating.On heating they undergo extensive cross linking in moulds and become hard infusible therefore, they can not be reused.
  • VULCANIZATION OF RUBBER – Vulcanization is a process of treating the natural rubber with sulphur or some compound of sulphur under heat.
  • WATER GAS – It is a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. It is obtained by the action of steam on a red hot coke at 10000 C.
  • PRODUCER GAS – It is a mixture of CO and N2. It is prepared by burning coke in limited supply of air.
  • COAL GAS – It is a mixture of H2, CH4,CO and other gases like N2, C2H4, O2 etc.It is obtained by destructive distillation of coal at about 10000 C.
  • OIL GAS – Is a mixture of H2,CH4,C2H4,CO and other gases like CO2. It is obtained by thermal cracing of kerosene oil.
  • GOBAR GAS – It contains CH4,CO and H2.It is produced by fermentation of gobar in absence of air.
  • NATURAL GAS – It is a mixture of gaseous hydrocarbons. viz. methane, ethane, propane,butane etc.
  • ANTIKNOCK COMPOUNDS – To reduce the knocking property or to improve the octane number of a fuel certain chemicals are added to it.These are called antiknock compounds. tetra Ethyl Lead is the best antiknock compound.
  • CETANE NUMBER – Cetane number of a diesel oil is the pertentage of cetane(hexadecane) by volume in a mixture of cetane and alpha-methyl napthalene.
  • FLASH POINT – The lowest temperature at which an oil gives sufficient vapours to form an explosive mixture with air is known as flash point of the oil. The flash point in India is fixed at 440C.
  • COAL – On basis of carbon% and calorific value there are four types of coal.
    a. Peat- 2500-3500 (calorific value)
    b. Lignite- 3500-4500 (calorific value)
    c. Bituminous- 7500-8000 (calorific value)
    d. Anthracite- 6700-7500 (calorific value)

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