History Notes Part XVI – Viceroys of India (Static GK Material for Competitive Exams)

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Muslim League, World War I, The English, East India Company, Robert Clive, Lord Canning, Lord Elgin I, Sir John Lawrence, Lord Mayo, Lord Northbrock, lord Lytton, Lord Ripon, Lord Dufferin, Lord Lansdown, Lord Elgin II, Lord Curzon, Lord Minto II, Lord Hardinge II , Lucent G.K. material for History, Pearson Study Material, History Notes, History Notes for Competitive Exams,Subsidiary Alliance, One Liners for History.

Viceroys of India

Lord Canning (1856-1862)

  • Lord Canning was the Governor General during the mutiny of 1857.
  • After Queen Victoria’s proclamation, he was appointed as the first Viceroy of British India.
  • He withdrew the Doctrine of Lapse Policy. During his tenure, the Indian Penal code came into force.
  • The Indian council act was passed in 1861 by the British Parliament for setting up of Legislative Council in provinces and Indian were permitted to became its members.
  • In 1857 Universities of Bombay, Calcutta and Madras were established.

Lord Elgin I (1862-1862)

  • During his tenure, the Wahabis, a Muslim sect, revolted on the north-western frontiers but were suppressed.

Sir John Lawrence (1864-1869)

  • His tenure witnessed a famine in Orrisa and a war with Bhutan. High Court was established at Calcutta, Bombay and Madras in 1865.
  • Sir John created Indian Forest Department.
  • Telegraph line with Europe was opened.
  • He introduced various reforms in Punjab after second Sikh war. He was known as the savior of Punjab.

Lord Mayo (1869-1872)

  • Lord Mayo recognized the country’s finances.
  • He also promoted irrigation, railways, forests and other useful public works. He established local boards.
  • During the tenure of Lord Mayo first census took place in 1872.
  • The European-oriented Mayo College at Ajmer was founded by him for the education of young Indian chiefs.
  • He was assassinated by Sher Ali Afridi, an Afridi Pathan during his visit to Port Blair in Andaman Islands in 1872.

Lord Northbrock (1872-1876)

  • During his tenure the quality of government was upgraded.
  • He reduced the taxes on import and abolished the taxes on export to improve trade.
  • Northbrook also began large scale famine relief policies to reduce both starvation and widespread social unrest.

Lord Lytton (1876-80)

  • He served as the viceroy of India from 1876 to 1880, during which time Queen Victoria was proclaimed as Empress of India.
  • The second Afghan war aroused discontent because of high cost involved and situation was worsened by a great famine in Deccan.
  • Lord Lytton is criticized for his handling of Afghan war and famine.
  • In 1878 he passed Vernacular Press Act which restricted the press and paper of local language newspaper to publish seditious material.
  • The Press Act resulted in public outcry in Calcutta led by Indian Association and Surendranath Banerjee.
  • His son-in-law and architect Edwin Lutyens, played a major role in the creation of New Delhi.
  • Edwin Landseer Lutyens was the architect of India Gate, Rastrapati Bhavan and Hyderabad House.

Lord Ripon (1880-1884)

  • Lord Ripon passed the Ilbert Bill which granted more legal rights for native Indian including the right of Indian judges to judge Europeans in court.
  • Ilbert Bill was opposed by Europeans.
  • Local Self Government Act was passed in 1882.

Lord Dufferin (1884-1888)

  • During Lord Dufferin Burma was invaded in 1895 and was annexed to the British Empire in 1889.
  • The Indian National Congress was formed during this time.
  • He appointed the Public Service Commission in 1886.

Lord Lansdowne (1888-1894)

  • During his time Indian Council Act was passed in 1892. Second Factory Act was passed in 1891.
  • The boundary line between British India and Afganistan was drawn.
  • The Durand Commission headed by Sir Mortimer Durand drew the boundary line or the Durand Line.

Lord Elgin (1894-1899)

  • During his tenure Lokmanya Tilak was imprisoned and released.
  • The great famine struck India in 1896 during his tenure.

Lord Curzon (1899-1905)

  • During his tenure, Queen Victoria died in 1901 and was succeeded by Edward VII who was declared king Emperor of India.
  • The Partition of Bengal (1905) into two provinces-Bengal and East Bengal was done by Lord Curzon.
  • Swadeshi Movement and Partition of Bengal were crucial event that took place during his tenure.

Lord Minto II (1905-1910)

  • During his tenure Muslim League was formed in 1906 which opposed Swadeshi Movement and supported the Partition of Bengal, this created differences between Hindus and Muslims.
  • The Morley-Minto Reforms or Indian Council Act was passed in 1909.

Lord Hardinge (1910-1916)

  • During his tenure King George V and Queen Mary visited India in December 1911 to celebrate the accession of king George V. Great Durbar was held in Delhi in their honour.
  • The capital was shifted from Calcutta to Delhi in 1911.
  • The Partition of Bengal was cancelled.
  • Home Rule Movement was launched by Annie Beasant.
  • The First World War broke out and the Indian National Congress led by Mahatma Gandhi supported the British in fighting the First World War.

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