History Notes Part XI – Mughal Period (Static GK Material for Competitive Exams)

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Mughal Dynasty, Important History notes, Lucent G.K. material for History, Mughal Empire, Bahadur Shah I, Decline of Mughal Empire, Nadir Shah, History Notes, History Notes for Competitive Exams, Important Dynasties of Medieval India, Later Mughals, Farrukh Siyar, Muhammad Shah, Ahmed Shah, Bahadur Shah I, Alamgir II, Shah Jahan III, Taj Mahal, Shah Alam II, Akbar II, Raja title to Ram Mohan Roy, Bahadur Shah II, Invasion of Nadir Shah, Phool Walon Ki Sair, One Liners for History.

MUGHAL PERIOD (1526-1540 and 1555-1847)

Bahadur Shah I (1707-1712)

  • Bahadur Shah was also known as Muhammad Muazzam and Shah Alam was the seventh Mughal emperor of India.
  • He ruled from 1707 until his death in 1712.
  • In his youth Bahadur Shah conspired to overthrow his father Aurangzeb a number of times but Aurangzeb intercepted his plans and imprison him several times.
  • In 1613, he was also imprisoned by Marathas for seven years.
  • Bahadur Shah I was the governor of Akbarabad (present Agra), Kabul and Lahore.
  • He tried to reconcile with the Marathas and inn his bid released Saha, the son of Sambhaji.
  • Bahadur Shah I died in 1712 and was buried in the courtyard of the Moti Masjid in Mehrauli.
  • He was succeeded by his son Jahandar Shah who ruled until 1713.

Reasons for the Decline of Mughal Empire.

  • After Aurangzeb, Mughal Empire declined rapidly. Important reasons were :
  • Aurangzeb’s Rajputa, Deccan and religious policies.
  • The successors of Aurangzeb were both weak and incompetent. Later Mughals spend more time in leisure activities and lost control of the states.
  • New powers such as Marathas, Sikhs and Rajputs came to power.
  • War of succession.
  • Rise of European power in India.
  • Nadir Shah’s invasion in 1739.

Later Mughals 

Jahandar Shah (1712-1713)

  • He was son of Bahadur Shah I.
  • He ascended the throne with the help of Zulfikar Khan.
  • Jahandar Shah abolishedd Jaziya, tax levied on non-Muslim citizens.

Farrukh Siyar (1713-1719)

  • Farrukh Siyar was the son of Azim-usn-Shan, the second son of emperor Bahadur Shah I.
  • He was the Mughal emperor from 1713 to 1719 after he murdered Jahander Shah.
  • He ascended the throne with the help of Sayyid brothers.

Muhammad Shah (1719-1748)

  • Muhammad Shah was the son of Khujista Akhtar, the fourth son of Bahadur Shah I.
  • He ascended the throne at the young age of 17 with the help of Sayyid brothers.
  • He was great partron of the arts, including music. He was often referred as ”Muhammad Shah Rangila”.
  • After his death he was succeeded by his son Ahmed Shah.

Ahmed Shah (1748-1754)

  • Ahmed Shah Bahadur, Mirza Ahmed Shah or Mujahid-ud-din Ahmed Shah Ghazi was the son of Mughal Emperor Muhammad Shah.
  • He succeeded his father to the throne at the age of 22 and ruled for six years.
  • He was deposed by Vizier Feroze Jung III.
  • He spent the remaining years of his life in prison and died in 1775.

Alamgir II (1754-1759)

  • Alamgir II or Aziz-ud-din was the second son of Jahandar Shah.
  • He was raised on the throne by Imad-ul-Mulk after he deposed Ahmed Shah Bahadur in 1754.
  • Ahmad Shah Abdali invaded India once again and captured Delhi and plundered Mathura.
  • Marathas became more powerful because of their collaborations Imad-ul-Mulk.
  • Alamgir II was murdered by Imad-ul-Mulk.

Shah Jahan III (1759-1760)

  • He was placed on Mughal throne on 1759.
  • He was deposed by Maratha Sardars.

Shah Alam II (1759-1806)

  • Ali Gauhar or Shah Alam II was son of Alamgir II.
  • He was not able to return to Delhi until 1772, under protection of Maratha General Mahadaji Shinde.
  • He fought against British East India Company at the Battle of Buxar.

Akbar II (1806-1837)

  • He was son of Shah Alam II.
  • He sent Ram Mohan Roy as an ambassador to Britain and gave him the title of Raja.
  • Akbar II started the Hindu-Muslim festival Phool Walon Ki Sair.
  • His grave is at Mehrauli.

Bahadur Shah II (1837-1857)

  • He was the last Mughal Emperor.
  • Bahadur Shah II was made premier during 1857 revolt.
  • He was deported to Rangoon in 1858 where he he died in 1862.

Invasion of Nadir Shah

  • In 1739, the reign of Muhammad Shah, a Persian king, Nadir Shah invaded India.
  • He mercilessly massacred people in Delhi.
  • His invasion broke the Mughal Empire as a result of which Marathas became more powerful in the Deccan.
  • Nadir Shah army easily defeated Mughals in the battle of Karnal.
  • Nadir Shah took away Thakht-i-Taus (the peacock throne) and Kohinoor Diamond.

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