History Notes Part IX – Mughal Period and Sur Empire (Static GK Material for Competitive Exams)

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Mughal Dynasty, Important History notes, Lucent G.K. material for History, Sur Empire, Babur, First Battle of Panipat, Second Battle of Panipat, History Notes, History Notes for Competitive Exams, Important Dynasties of Medieval India, Akbar, Birbal, Navratnas of Akbar’s Court,  Bairam Khan, Humayun, Sher Shah Suri, One Liners for History. 

MUGHAL PERIOD (1526-1540 and 1555-1847)

Babur (1526-1530)

  • Babur founded the Mughal Empire in India in 1526 by defeating Ibrahim Lodhi, the last Sultan of Lodhi Dynasty.
  • He was a descendant of Timur (from side of his father) and Chengiz Khan (from the side of his mother).
  • Babur fought four Important Battles.
  • He defeated Ibrahim Lodhi in first Battle of Panipat on 20 April 1526.
  • Babur defeated Rana Sanga of Mewar in Battle of Khanwa near Fatehpur Sikri in 1527. He occupied Agra after defeating Rana Sanga.
  • He defeated Medini Rai of Chanderi in Battle of Chanderi 1528.
  • In 1529, he defeated Muhammad Lodhi (uncle of Ibrahim Lodhi) in Battle of Ghaghra.
  • In 1527, in Battle of Gorge, he defeated the Afgans and thus, became the master of the entire India.
  • Babur died in 1530 at Agra. His tomb is at Kabul.
  • He was first to use gunpowder and artillery in India.
  • He wrote his autobiography Tuzuk-i-Baburi in Turki which gives an excellent account of India and his empire.
  • His autobiography was translated in Persian by Abdur Rahim Khanekhana and in English by Madam Bevridge.
  • He wrote Risal-i-Usaz or letters of Babur.

Humayun (1530-1540 and 1555-1556)

  • Humayun was the son of Babur. After the death of Babur he ascended the throne in 1530.
  • He faced defeats against Sher Shah in battles of Chausa (1539) and at Kannauj (1540).
    After the defeat he escaped to Iran and passed 12 years in exile.
  • After the death of Sher Shah Humayun invaded India in 1555 and defeated Sher Shah’s brothers and Afgans and once again became the ruler of India.
  • He died in 1556 and was buried in Delhi.
  • His biography Humayunama is written by his sister Gulbadan Begum.
  • He built Din Panah at Delhi as his second capital.

Sher Shah (1540-1545)

  • Sher Shah was the son of Hasan Khan, the Jagirdar of Sasaram. Ibrahim Lodhi transfered his father’s jagir to him.
  • In 1539, he defeated Humayun in battle of Chausa and assumed the title Sher Shah as emperor.
  • In 1540, he defeated Humayun in Battle of Kannauj/Bilgram and annexed Kannauj.
  • He merged Malwa, Ranthambhor, Raisin, Rajputana annexation of Marwar (1542), Chittor (1544) and Kalinjar in 1545.
  • He issued coins called Rupia and introduced brilliant administration and land revenue policy.
  • He built a Grand Trunk Road or GT Road which runs from Calcutta to Peshawar.
  • He built Purana Quila at Delhi.
  • He died in 1545 while conquesting Kalinjar.
  • He was buried in Sasaram.
  • Sher Shah Suri was succeeded by Islam Shah.
  • Islam Shah was succeeded by Muhammad Shah.

Akbar (1556-1605)

  • Akbar was the eldest son of Humayun. After the death of his father Humayun he ascended the throne at the age of 14.
  • He ascended the throne under the title of Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar Badshah Ghazi.
  • His tutor Bairam Khan was appointed as the regent.
  • Second Battle of Panipat was fought between Hemu and Bairam Khan in 1556.
  • Hemu was defeated, captured and slayed by Bairam Khan, the regent off Akbar, as the result of which Akbar occupied Delhi and Agra.
  • At the age of 18 Akbar ended the regency of Bairam Khan in 1560.
  • To expand his kingdom and to win over Rajputas, Akbar inducted Rajput Kings into Mughal service.
  • He married Harakha Begum, daughter of Biharimal in 1562.
  • Battle of Haldighati was fought between Rana Pratap of Mewar and Mughal Army led by Man Singh in 1576.
  • Akbar proclaimed a new religion Din-i-Ilahi in 1581 due to the revolt against the and bigotry of religious priests.
  • The new religion was based on values taken from Hinduism, Jainism, Islam and Christianity.
    Birbal was the only Hindu who followed this new religion. However Din-i-Ilahi did not become popular.
  • Akbar built Fatehpur Sikri, Lahore Port, Allahbad Port, Agra Fort and Humayun’s Tomb at Delhi.
    Akbar shifted his court from Agra to Fatehpur Sikri in honour of Sheikh Salim Chisty who blessed Akbar with a son.
  • Tulsidas who wrote Ramcharitmanas also lived during Akbar’s period.
  • The court of Akbar has nine jewels or Navaratnas.
    1) Birbal – Administrator
    2) Abul Fazl – Scholar and Statesman
    3) Faizi – Scholar and Statesman
    4) Todarmal – Finance Minister
    5) Bhagwandas – Mansabdar
    6) Man Singh – Mansabdar
    7) Tansen – Musician
    8) Abdul Rahim Khanekhana – Statesman
    9) Mulla Do Pyaja
  • Akbar is considered as the real founder of Mughal Empire in India.
  • He separated religion from politics.
  • Birbal, the Administrator of Akbar, was killed in the battle with Yusufzai Tribe.
  • Abul Fazl was murdered by Bir Singh Bundela.
  • Akbar died on 27 October 1605 and was buried at Sikandara near Agra.
  • He was succeeded by his son Salim or Jahangir.

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