History Notes Part X – Mughal Period (Static GK Material for Competitive Exams)

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Mughal Dynasty, Important History notes, Lucent G.K. material for History, Mughal Empire, Jahangir, Prince Salim, NurJahan, History Notes, History Notes for Competitive Exams, Important Dynasties of Medieval India, Aurangzeb, Guru Gobind Singh, Guru Teg Bahadur, Humayun, Shahjahan, Jama Masjid, Red Fort, Taj Mahal, Zinda Per, One Liners for History.

Table Of Content

MUGHAL PERIOD (1526-1540 and 1555-1847)


  • Jahangir was the fourth Mughal emperor who ruled from 1605 to 1627.
  • Prince Salim ascended to the throne with the title of Nur-ud-din Muhammad Jahangir Badshah ghazi at the age of 36 after death of his father Akbar.
  • Jahangir is known for strict administration. He established Zanjir-i-Adal at Agra Fort for the seekers of royal justice.
  • Jahangir married Man Bai in 1585 and named her Shah Begum.
  • Jahangir also married Manmati/Jagat Gosai/Jodha Bai of Marwar, and Kachhawaha princesses.
  • In 1611, Jahangir married Mihr-un-nisa, widow of Sher Afgan, a Persian nobleman of Bengal.
    She was given the title of Nur Jahan. She was made the official Padshah Begum.
  • Jahangir issued coins jointly in Nur Jahan’s name and his own.
  • In 1608, Captain William Hawkins, a representative of East India Company came to Jahangir’s court.
  • In 1615, Sir Thomas Roe, an ambassador of king James I of England came to court of Jahangir.
  • Jahangir granted permission to the English to establish a trading port at Surat.
  • Jahangir had a profound interest in fine art and paintings.
  • He wrote his memoirs Tuzuk-i-Jahangir in Persian.
  • He died in 1627.


  • Shahjahan was the son of Jahangir and Jagat Gosai/Jodha Bai, daughter of raja Jagat Singh.
  • He was fifth Mughal emperor and ascended thethrone in 1628 after the death of his father.
  • Khurram emerged victorious in war of succession. He killed all of his rivals for the throne and crowned himself as emperor under the title ”Shah Jahah”.
  • He is known for his Deccan and Foreign policies.
  • Three years after he came to throne, his beloved wife Mumtaz Mahal whose original name was Arzumand Bano died in 1631.
  • He built the Taj Mahal at Agra in 1632-1653 to perpetuate her memory.
  • In 1631-1653, he defeated the Portuguese.
  • Nizam Shahi’s dynasty of Ahmadnagar was brought under Mughal control in 1633 by Shahjahan.
  • The Deccan Sultanate of Bijapur and Golconda merged into his Kingdom in 1636.
  • French traveller Bernier and Tavernier and the Italian traveller Nicoli Manucci came to India during Shahjahan’s reign.
  • Shahjahan’s reign is described by them. Peter mundi described the famine that occurred during Shahjahan’s time.
  • Shahjahan’s reign is known is for the promotion of art, culture and architecture.
  • Jama Masjid, Red Fort and Taj Mahal are some of the magnificient structures built during his reign.
  • In war of succession between Shahjahan’s four viz. Dara, Shah Shuja, Aurangzeb and Murad, Aurangzeb emerged victorious,
  • Aurangzeb crowned himself in July 1658 and imprisoned his father Shahjahan in the Agra Fort.
  • Shahjahan died in Agra Fort in 1666. He was buried at Taj.

Aurangzeb (1658-1707)

  • Aurangzeb defeated his brothers and crowned himself at Delhi under the title Alamgir.
  • He was the sixth Mughal Emperor. He ruled for 50 years till his death in Feb 1707 in Ahmadnagar.
  • For first 23 years of his reign Aurangzeb concentrated on North India.
  • Aurangzeb captured ninth Guru of Sikhs, Guru Teg Bahadurand executed him when he refused to turn into Muslim.
  • The tenth and last Sikh Guru, Guru Gobind Singh, son of Guru Teg Bahadur, organised his followers into community of warrior called Khalsa to fight against Aurangzeb and to take revenge for killing his father.
  • However Guru Gobind Singh was assassinated in 1708 by an Afgan Nander in Deccan.
    Banda Bahadur, a disciple of Guru Gobind Singh continued the war against Mughals.
  • The original name of Banda Bahadur was Lachhman Dev.
  • Aurangzeb made desperate bids to crush the Marathas.
  • Aurangzeb died in 1707. He was buried at Khuldabeb (Daulatabad).
  • He was called Zinda Pir, the living saint. 

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