History Notes Part XIII – Modern India (Static GK Material for Competitive Exams)

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Anglo-Maratha Wars, Treaty of Salbai, Portuguese, The Dutch, The Danish, The English, The French, Carnatic Wars, Faruk Siyar, Treaty of Aix-La-Chapelle,Lenior and Dumas, Governor Dupelix, Captain William Hawkins, Treaty of Pondicherry, Important History notes, Lucent G.K. material for History, History Notes, History Notes for Competitive Exams, Marthas, Shivaji, One Liners for History.

Table Of Content

Anglo-Maratha wars 

  • Three wars were fought between Marathas and English.
  • The first Anglo-Maratha war was fought between 1775 and 1782 between English (Hastings) and Marathas.
  • English was defeated by Marathas and, British had to sign the humiliating Convention of Wadgaon in 1779.
  • British later signed Treaty of Salbai in 1782. As per the treaty British aknowledged Madhavrao Narayan as Peshwa of Maratha Empire.
  • The second Anglo-Maratha war was fought from 1803 to 1806 in which Maratha Peshwa signed the subsidiary Alliance Treaty of Bassein in 1802.
  • The Marathas were defeated by the British power.
  • Third Anglo-Maratha war was fought from 1817 to 1818 in which Marathas were defeated.


  • Portuguese were the first to discover a sea-route to India free from Turkish threat in 1498.
  • Vasco-de-Gama discovered sea route from Cape of Good Hope to India. He arrived at Calicut on 27 May 1498.
  • Portuguese established political power along the west coast of India. He was succeeded by Captain General Alfonso de Albuquerque who conquered Ga in 1510.

The Dutch

  • The first fleet of the Dutch reached India in 1595 and Dutch East India Company was formed in 1602.
  • In 1605, they established their first factory in Masulipattam.
  • They also established factories at Pulicat in 1610, Surat in 1616, Kasimbazar in 1658, Bimilpatam in 1641, Karikal in 1645, Chinsura in 1653, Patna Balasore in 1658, Baranagore in 1658 and in Lochin in 1663.
  • Pulicat was the chief trade centre till 1690 which later shifted to Negapatnam.
  • The Dutch collapsed with their defeat by the English in battle Bedera in 1759.

The English

  • The English East India company was formed in 1600.
  • John Middenhall was the first English merchant adventurer who arrived in India in 1599 by land route for the purpose of trade with Indian Merchants.
  • Captain William Hawkins arrived at Jahangir’s court in 1609 for the permission to open a trade centre at Surat. In 1609 Jahangir did not permit them but in 1613 Jahangir issued a ‘farman’ permitting the English to build a factory at Surat.
  • The company gradually started trading centres at Bombay, Calcutta and Madras.
  • The Bombay was acquired by English East India Company on lease from Charles II. Gerald Aungier was the first governor from 1669 to 1677.
  • The English established their settlements factories in Masulipattnam in 1611, Agra, Baroda, Ahmedabad and Broach in 1619, Armagon in 1626, Hariharpur in 1633, Balasore in 1633, Patna, Kasimbazar in Bengal, Dacca and Bihar in 1635, Madras in 1639, Hugli in 1651, Sutanuti in 1690, Kalikota and Govindpur in 1698.
  • Later Sutanuti, Kalikota and Govindpur was joined together to a new city ‘Calcutta’ and Sutanuti was fortified in 1700 and named ‘Fort William’.
  • In 1694, British parliament gave equal rights to all Englishman to trade in the East. A new rival company, known as ‘The English Company of Merchants Trading to the East Indies’ was formed in 1698.
  • The new company came in existence in 1708 under the title ‘The United Company of Merchants of England Trading to the East Indies’. This company existed till 1858.
  • In 1717, Fanik Siyar granted British another ‘Farman’, thus extended the privilege to British in Gujarat and Deccan.

The French

  • French came to India in 1664 and set up centers near Madras and Chandanagore on the Hoogly to trade with India.
  • The French East India Company was formed by Colbert. The first French factory was established at Surat by Francsis Caron in 1668.
  • The French also established naval bases in the islands of Bourbon and Mauritius in the Indian Ocean.
  • They flourished in India under Governers Lenoir and Dumas between 1720 and 1742.
    In 1742, the French Governer Dupelix started repulsing the English power which saw the beginning of Anglo-French conflict or ‘Carnatic Wars’ resulting in their final defeat in India.

Carnatic Wars

  • Carnatic Wars were series of military conflicts between French East India Company and British East India Company.
  • The First Anglo-French war was fought between 1746 and 1748 and the Nawab of Carnatic’s army was defeated by French under Dupleix.
  • Treaty of Aix-La-Chapelle ended the First Anglo-French war in India.
  • Second Anglo-French war was fought between 1749 and 1754. Robert Clive of British East India Company emerged victorious.
  • Treaty of Pondicherry ended the Second Anglo-French war.
  • In Third Anglo-French war (1758-1763) French were defeated at Wandiwash in 1760.
  • Treaty of Paris (1763) ended the final Anglo-French war and Pondicherry was returned to French.

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