History Notes Part XIX – Indian National Congress, Indigo Revolt and GOI Act (Static GK Material for Competitive Exams)

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Government of India Act 1858, Bankim Chandra Chatterjee, Anand Math, The Indigo Revolt, Nil Darpan, indian National Congress, Sessions of Congress, Extremists and Moderates, First Women President of INC, Lucent G.K. material for History, Pearson Study Material, History Notes, History Notes for Competitive Exams,Subsidiary Alliance, One Liners for History.

Indian National Congress, Indigo Revolt and GOI

Government of India Act 1858

  • After the revolt of 1857, a proclamation was passed by Queen Victoria on 1 November 1858, according to the Act
  • India was under direct government of the Crown.
  • A Viceroy was appointed in India.
  • The Policy of Doctrine of Lapse was abolished and Princess were given the right to adopt a son.
  • Equal treatment was promised to Indians and the religious k was restored.
  • The proclamation was called the ‘Magma Carta of Indian Liberty’. The British started to treat Indians as their precious possession.
  • The feeling of nationalism started to grow in Indians after the revolt.
  • After the government of India Act the entire country came under crown directly which brought the political unification among the states which were divided into small regions fighting among themselves.
  • The economists namely M.G. Ranade, Dadabhai Naoroji, R.C. Dutt started pointing about the adverse effects of British administration on Indian Economy, Industries, Agriculture sectors etc.
  • The Britishers who came to India with motive of trade started ruling and exploiting the Indians.
  • The discoveries of such harsh truth generated the Swadeshi spirit in Indians.
  • The growth of Education also played an important role in developing the urge of freedom among Indians.
  • Literature in the native languages like Bankim Chandra Chatterjee’s Anand Math aroused anti- British feelings. The press also played an important role in spreading nationalist feelings among Indians.

The Indigo Revolt of 1859-60

  • Indigo revolt was a peasant movement of Indigo farmers against the Indigo planters that arouse in Bengal in 1859.
  • The Indigo planters, nearly all Europeans, forced the tenants to plant indigo instead of food crops.
  • The peasants were compelled to grow the indigo in their best land even if they want to grow food crops. The reason was the high demand of Blue dye in Europe.
  • They provided loans for the peasants at a very high interest. If the farmer is unable to pay the loan through his life it would pass to his successor.
  • The price paid by the planters was mere 2.5% of the market price. The farmers gained no profit on Indigo plantation.
  • The total system involved great loss to the cultivators who were deceived with fraudulent contracts, low prices and other enforcement from the law.
  • The anger among the farmers exploded in 1859 with the Kar proclamation on this matter. Under the leadership of Digamber Biswas andd Vishnu Biswas the revolt began against Indigo plantation.
  • By 1860, all indigo districts of Bengal revolted against this injustice ultimately the planters had to bow out indigo business and they gradually began to close their factories.
  • Towards the end of 1860, the cultivation of indigo was virtually wiped out from the districts of Bengal.
  • Harish Chandra Mukherjee describes the situation of poor farmers in his newspaper The Hindu Patriot. Dina Bandhu Mitra, depicted the situation in his play Nil Darpan.

Indian National Congress and its sessions

  • The Indian National Union was founded by A.O. Hume, an Englishman and a retired Civil Servant in association with various national leaders who called for a conference in Pune in December 1858.
  • The venue was shifted to Bombay for various regions. The leaders decided to rename the Indian National Union as Indian National Congress.
  • The first session of INC was held in Bombay under the president ship of W.C. Bannerjee, a Veteran lawyer of Calcutta.
  • The founders of INC were leaders like Dadabhai Naoroji, Madan Mohan Malviya, Badruddin Tyabji, Mahadev Govind Ranade, Anand Mohan Bose, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, R.C. Dutt, Dinshaw Wacha, Ferozshah Mehta, G.Subramanian Iyyer and Gopal Krishna Gokhale.
  • The first session was attended by 72 delegates from all over India. From 1885 the INC meet every year.
  • Second Conference of Indian National Congress was held in 1886 at Calcutta under President ship of Dadabhai Naoroji.
  • Third meeting of Indian National Congress was held in 1887 in Madras under President ship of Badruddin Tyyabji. Badruddin Tyyabji was the first Muslim President of INC.
  • In 1888, INC met for the fourth time and the President was George Yule (First English President). The meeting took place in Allahabad.
  • The National song, Vande Mataram was sung for the first time in the meeting of INC in 1896 at Calcutta under the president ship of Rahimtulla M. Sayani.
  • In 1907, at Surat session, the Indian National Congress split into two groups, one consisting of moderates led by Gopal Krishna Gokhale and other consisting of Extremists led by Bal Gangadhar Tilak. The President during this session was Rasbihari Ghosh.
  • During Lucknow session of Indian National Congress in 1916, re-union of Congress took place and the Lucknow pact was signed. The President was A.C. Majumdar.
  • The session of 1917 was held in Calcutta under first lady President Annie Besant.
  • Kanpur session of 1925 was presided by First Indian Lady president Sarojini Naidu.
  • The Belgaum session of 1924 was presided by M.K. Gandhi.
  • The president of INC at the time of India’s independence was Acharya JB Kriplani.
  • First session after the Independence of India was held in 1948 at Jaipur under Dr. Pattabhi Sitaramayya.

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