History Notes Part XXII – Important Events (Static GK Material for Competitive Exams)

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Partition of Bengal, Swadeshi Movement, Boycott Movement, Muslim League, Nawab Salimullah of Dacca, Surat Congress, Extremists and Moderates, Morley – Minto Reforms, Lucent G.K. material for History, Pearson Study Material, History Notes, History Notes for Competitive Exams,Subsidiary Alliance, One Liners for History.

Important Events

Partition of Bengal

  • The partition of Bengal was announced on 19 July 1905 by the Viceroy of India, Lord Curzon.
  • The partition of Bengal came into effect on 16 October 1905, through a Royal Proclamation.
  • The partition separated largely Muslim eastern areas from the largely Hindu western areas.
  • A new province of East Bengal was created which was later became East Pakistan and present day Bangladesh.
  • The government explained that it was done to stimulate growth of under developed eastern region of the Bengal but the main objective was to ‘Divide and Rule’, the most advanced region of the country at that time.
  • It also set up a communal gulf between Hindus and Muslims.
  • Indian National Congress unanimously condemned the partition of Bengal.

Swadeshi Movement (1905)

  • The Swadeshi Movement was launched on 7 August 1905 at the Calcutta Town Hall, in Bengal. Boycott Movement was also launched along with the Swadeshi Movement.
  • With the start of the Swadeshi Movement at the turn of the country, the Indian National Movement took a major leap forward.
  • The movement included boycotting and burning British made goods and using goods produced and manufactured in India.
  • Indian National Congress during Benaras Session in 1905 presided over by Gopal Krishna Ghokle supported the Swadeshi Movement and Boycott Movement of Bengal.
  • The Swadeshi and Boycott Movement were started as a purely economic measure for the development of Indian industry Bonefire of foreign goods was launched on a large scale inn all the major cities.
  • Lala Lajpat Rai, Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Bipin Chandra Pal extended the movement in many Parts of India.
  • Bal Gangadhar Tilak took the movement to Pune and Muslims.
  • Ajit Singh and Lala Lajpat Rai took the Swadeshi Movement in Punjab and other parts of Northern India.
  • Syed Haider Raja set up the agenda in Delhi. The movement was brought to Madras Presidency by Chidambram Pillai.

Advantages of Boycott or Swadeshi Movement

  • It encouraged Indian Industries , especially, the small and medium scale industries.
  • Many Swadeshi banks and insurance companies were launched.
  • Journalism and National poetry developed which inculcated the feelings of nationalism in the Indian masses.

Muslim League

  • All India Muslim League was set up by Nawab Salimullah of Dacca (Dhaka) at Dacca on Dec 1906.
  • The league was founded to safeguard the rights of Indian Muslims.
  • The league supported the Partition of Bengal and opposed the Swadeshi Movement.
  • It demanded special safeguards for its community and separate electorates of Muslims.
  • At first the British Government supported the league as it was in favour of their rule, but the organization adopted self government for India as its goal in 1913.

Surat Congress

  • The Indian National Congress split into two groups-the extremists and the moderate at the Surat session of INC in 1907 which was held on the banks of river ‘Tapti’.
  • The extremists were led by Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Lala Lajpat Rai and Bipin Chandra Pal and the moderates were led by Gopal Krishna Gokhale.
  • The British Government obsessing the opportunity immediately launched a massive attack on the extremists and Extremist Newspaper were suppressed.
  • Lokmanya Tilak, their main leader, was sent to Mandalay jail for six years Aurobindo Ghosh gave up politics and left for Pondicherry.
  • Bipin Chandra Pal also, left politics temporarily and Lala Lajpat Rai left for Britain. After 1908, the national movement as a whole declined.

Morley-Minto Reforms (1909)

  • Lord Minto, the Governor General of India introduced Morley-Minto Reforms in 1909.
  • The Act was formulated by John Morley, secretary of state of India.
  • The Morley-Minto Reforms introduced the elective principle to membership in the imperial and local legislative councils in India.
  • The reforms increased the size of the legislative council both Central and Provincial. The number of members were increased from 16 to 60.
  • The reforms introduced a separate electorate for Muslims in which the Muslims could only vote for Muslim Candidates. This triggered disharmony between Hindu-Muslims.
  • The leaders were dissatisfied with the Reforms.  


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