History Notes Part XXIII – Important Events (Static GK Material for Competitive Exams)

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Jallianwala Bagh Massacre, Home Rule Movement, Dr. Annie Besant, August Declaration, Rowlatt Act, Rowlatt Satyagraha, Dr. Kitchlu and Dr. Satyapal , Lucknow Pact, Lucent G.K. material for History, Pearson Study Material, History Notes, History Notes for Competitive Exams,Subsidiary Alliance, One Liners for History.

Important Events

Home Rule Movement (1915-1916)

  • The Home Rule Movement was started in India inn September 1916 by Dr. Annie Besant.
  • The Home Rule Movement was inspired by the Irish Rebellion. The Movement spread rapidly all over India and the branches of the Home Rule league were established in all parts of India.
  • Bal Gangadhar Tilak whole heartedly supported this movement. Tilak joined forces with Dr. Annie Besant and persuaded the Muslim League to support this programme.
  • The league demanded Home Rule, or Self Government within the British Empire for all of India. By seeing number of protests British Government arrested Annie Besant in 1917.
  • The movement spread out and made its impact in the interior villages of India.
  • The League spread political awareness in new areas like Sindh, Bihar, Orrissa, Madras, Central and United provinces.
  • Arrest of Annie Besant led to nation wide protests.
  • The pressure of the movement led to Montague’s declaration on 20 August 1917 which stated that ”progressive realization of responsible government in India” was the policy of the British Government.

Lucknow Pact (1916)

  • The Lucknow pact was an important agreement which established Hindu-Muslim unity. Congress and Muslim held sessions at Lucknow in 1916 and concluded the Lucknow pact.
  • After the war between Britain and Turkey, Anti-British feelings were generated among the Muslims.
  • INC and Muslims realized that unity and cooperation were the key to achieve freedom from British rule. So in 1916 Lucknow pct was signed in which Congress accepted the separate electorates and both organizations jointly demanded dominion status for the country.
  • Hindu-Muslim Unity weakened the British administration.
  • In 1916 a British policy was announced in which the association of Indians was increased and there was to be a gradual development of local self-governing institutions.

August Declaration

  • By August Declaration the control over the Indian Government was to be transferred gradually to the Indian people.
  • The association of Indians was increased in every branch of administration.
  • The Governor retained complete control over the finances and law and order while the other departments such as education, public health, and local self- government were called transferred subjects and were to be controlled by ministers responsible to the legislatures.

Rowlatt Act (1919)

  • Rowlatt Act or The Anarchical and Revolutionary Crimes Act of 1919 was a legislative act passed by the Imperial Legislative Council in Delhi on 10 March 1919.
  • The Act was passed on the recommendations of the Rowlatt Committee and the act was named after British judge Sir Sidney Rowlatt.
  • The act gave permissions to government to imprison any person suspected of terrorism for two years without a trial.
  • The act gave the imperial authorities power to deal with all revolutionary activities. The purpose of the act was to curb the growing nationalist activities in the country.
  • Mahatma Gandhi with other Indian leaders decided to protest against this act. He gave a call for Satyagraha on 6 April 1919.
  • A hartal was organised in which the businesses were suspended, people would fast, pray and hold public meetings against this act.
  • This event was known as Rowlatt Satyagraha.
  • Gandhiji was arrested on 8 April 1919, which led to further intensification of the agitation in Delhi, Ahmadabad and Punjab.

Jallianwala Bagh Massacre (13 April 1919)

  • The arrest of Dr. Kitchlu and Dr. Satyapal on April 10, 1919 under the Rowlatt Act led to the serious agitation and unrest inn Punjab.
  • A pubic meeting was held on April 13, 1919 in a park called Jallianwala Bagh in Amritsar on Baisakhi where thousands of people including women and children assembled.
  • Before the start of the meeting General Reginald Edward Harry Dyer ordered heavy firing on the crowd blocking the main and only entrance.
  • The casualty number estimated by INC was more than 1,500 people wounded and approximately 1,000 dead.
  • This massacre resulted in wrenching loss of faith in the intentions of the British Government, and inspired people to provide a more unrelenting fight for freedom.
  • In 1940, Sardar Uddham Singh, a Indian patriot from Punjab, shot down Michael O’Dyer in London.  

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