History Notes Part XXV – Round Table Conferences, Dandi March (Static GK Material for Competitive Exams)

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Nehru Committee Report, Lahore Session, Poorna Swaraj, Indian Flag hoisted for the first time, Dandi March, Salt Satyagraha, Civil Disobedience Movement, First Round Table Conference, Second Round Table conference, Third Round Table Conference, Lucent G.K. material for History, Pearson Study Material, History Notes, History Notes for Competitive Exams,Subsidiary Alliance, One Liners for History.

Round Table Conferences, Dandi March, Lahore Session

Nehru Committee Report (1928)

  • The Nehru Report was a report by a committee constituted under the chairmanship of Motilal Nehru to draft a constitution for the country.
  • The committee of the All Parties conference was chained by Motilal Nehru with Jawaharlal Nehru acting as secretary.
  • There were nine other members in this committee.
  • The chief architects of the report were Motilal Nehru and Tej Bahadur Sapru.
  • With few exceptions Muslim League leaders rejected the Nehru proposals.
  • Mohammad Ali Jinnah, the leader of Muslim League, thereafter drew up a list of demands, which were called ‘ 14 points of Jinnah ‘.
  • Their main demands were –
  • In the Central Legislature, Muslim representation shall not be less than one third.
  • Separate electorate.
  • Full Religious liberty
  • Cabinet should have a proportion of at least one-third Muslim ministers.

Lahore Session

  • On Dec 19,1929, under the President ship of Jawaharlal Nehru, the Indian National Congress at its Lahore session, passed a resolution declaring Poorna Swaraj (Complete Independence) as its ultimate goal.
  • On Dec 31 1929, flag of India was hoisted by Jawaharlal Nehru on the banks of River Ravi in Lahore.
  • The Congress asked the people to observe 26th of January as Independence Day every year.
  • He also pleaded to the people of India to not to submit themselves to British rule any longer.

Dandi March/Salt Satyagraha (1930)

  • Mahatma Gandhi launched another Civil Disobedience Movement in 1930 to achieve the goal of Poorna Swaraj.
  • With 78 followers, Gandhiji started Dandi March from Sabarmati Ashram on 12 March 1930, from a village Dandi to break the Salt Law.
  • The 26-day march lasted from 12 March 1930 to 6 April and Gandhiji and followers covered a distance of 240 miles.
  • The aim of the Campaign was to take direct action and non-violent protest against the British Salt monopoly.
  • On reaching the seashore he broke the salt law by picking up salt from the seashore and started Civil Disobedience Movement.
  • The movement ignited patriotism countrywide.
  • The Satyagraha was so powerful that the Gharwal soldiers refused to fire at the people at Peshawar.
  • People boycotted foreign goods and it took the shape of nationwide Civil Disobedience Movement.
  • Over 60,000 Indians were jailed as a result of the salt Satyagraha.

First Round Table Conference (November 1930-January 1931)

  • The First Round Table Conference was inaugurated by George V on November 12,1930 in Royal Gallery House of Lords at London.
  • It was Chaired by the British Prime Minister, Ramsay MacDonald.
  • It was to discuss the Simon Commission but it was totally boycotted by the Indian National Congress.
  • There were fifty-eight political leaders from British India and sixteen delegates from the princely states.
  • Total 74 delegates attended the First Round Table Conference from India. The First Round Table Conference was followed by second round table congress.
  • In the absence of Indian National Congress it was difficult for progress to be made but some advances were made.
  • The conference was adjourned to 2 January 1931.

Second Round Table Conference

  • The Congress was requested to come to a settlement by Sapru, M.R. Jayakar and V.S. Srinivasa Shastri.
  • After six meetings with Viceroy Lord Irwin, a pact was signed known as Gandhi-Irwin pact and Gandhiji was appointed as the sole representative of the Congress to the Second Round Table Conference.
  • It was held in London in September 1931.
  • The discussion was not fruitful as Gandhiji could not agree with British Prime Minister Ramsay Mac Donald on his policy of communal representation and refusal of the British Government on the basic Indian demand for freedom.
  • The discussion only led to a passing of the Government of India Act of 1935.

Third Round Table Conference

  • The Third and last conference was held on 17 November 1932.
  • It was attended by only forty-six delegates since most of the main political leaders of India were in prison.
  • The Labour Party from Britain and Indian National Congress refused to attend.
  • In this conference, a college student Chaudhary Rahmat Ali proposed the name of the new land specially carved out from India for the Muslims. The name of this land was Pakistan.
  • Imp Note : B.R. Ambedkar and Tej Bahadur Sapru took part in all the Three Round Table Conferences.

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