History Notes Part XXVII – Mahatma Gandhi (Static GK Material for Competitive Exams)

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Mahatma Gandhi, Tolstoy Farm, Civil Disobedience Movement, Dandi March, Salt Satyagraha, Khilafat Movement, Kaisar-i-Hind, Kheda Satyagraha, Champaran Movement, Non- Cooperation Movement, Lucent G.K. material for History, Pearson Study Material, History Notes, History Notes for Competitive Exams,Subsidiary Alliance, One Liners for History.

Mahatma Gandhi and his role in the Freedom Struggle

  • Mohandas Karam Chand Gandhi was born on 2 October, 1869 in Porbandar, India.
  • At the age of 18 he went to England for studying law. Later he went to British colony of South Africa to practice his law, where he faced racial discrimination in various forms.
  • In an incidence, Gandhiji was thrown off the first class compartment of the train at Pietermaritabury station.
  • Gandhiji founded Natal Indian Congress in 1894.
  • In 1899, during Boer Wars he founded Indian Ambulance Core he founded Indian Opinion magazine and Pheonix Farm at Pheonix near Durban.
  • He started first Civil Disobedience Movement against Asiatic Ordinance in Transvaal in year 1906.
  • In 1907 he led Satyagraha again Compulsory Registration and Passes for Asians. He was imprisoned in Johannesburg Jail in 1908.
  • He founded Tolstoy Farm near Johannesburg the farm was later called Gandhi Ashram. In 1914 he quit South Africa and returned to India.
  • He was awarded with Kaisar-i-Hind for raising in Indian Ambulance Core during Boer Wars. Gandhiji arrived in Bombay on 9th Jan 1915.
  • He attended Lucknow session of Indian National Congress which was held on 26-30 December in 1916.
  • A cultivator named Raj Kumar Shukla from Bihar requested Gandhiji to come to Champaram.
  • Gandhiji entered active politics with Champaran campaign to address the problems of the cultivators by Indigo planters of Bihar. Champaran movement was its first Civil Disobedience Movement in India.
  • In 1918 Gandhiji launched the struggle in Ahmedabad which involved industrial workers. He used hunger strike for the first time during the Ahmedabad struggle.
  • In March 1918, Gandhiji launched Kheda Satyagraha for the peasants of Gujarat who were facing difficulties in paying the rent of the land after the failure of crops.
  • It was the first Non-Cooperation Movement by Mahatma Gandhi. Gandhiji started Satyagraha against the Rowlatt Act on 6 April, 1919 and lead the movement for the first time.
  • Gandhiji returned the Kaisar-i-Hind Gold Medal as a protest against the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre which took place on April 13, 1919.
  • In Nov 1919 Gandhiji was elected as the President of All India Khilafat Conference. Gandhiji led the Non-Cooperation and Khilafat Movement in 1920 to 1922. But due to Chauri-Chaura incident Gandhiji called off the Movement on 5 Feb 1922.
  • Gandhiji was elected as the president of Indian National Congress in Belgium Session in 1924.
  • He launched Civil Disobedience Movement and Dandi March or Salt Satyagraha in 1930.
  • Gandhiji attended the Second round table conference in London as the only representative of the Congress.
  • He raised the slogan ‘Do or Die’ during the Quit India Movement. Gandhiji and other important leaders of the congress were arrested in 1942.
  • He was kept in detention at Aga Khan Palace near Pune. Kasturba Gandhi, the wife of Mahatma Gandhi died on 22 Feb 1944.
  • Gandhiji was deeply distressed by the Mountbatten Plan or the Partition Plan of the India.
  • Gandhiji was shot dead by Nathuram Ghodse while on his way to Birla House, New Delhi.
  • Gopal Krishna Gokhale was the political Guru of Mahatma Gandhi.

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