History Notes Part XXVI – GOI, Cripps Mission, Quit India Movement (Static GK Material for Competitive Exams)

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The Communal Award, Poona Pact, The government of India Act 1935, Lahore Resolution, August Offer, The Cripps Mission, Quit India Movement, Lucent G.K. material for History, Pearson Study Material, History Notes, History Notes for Competitive Exams,Subsidiary Alliance, One Liners for History.

GOI, Cripps Mission, Quit India Movement

The Commmunal Award (16 August 1932)

  • After returning from London Gandhiji was arrested, after the Second Round Table Conference. British Prime Minister Ramsay Mac Donald announced his Award on communal representation on 16 August 1932.
  • It envisages communal representation of Depressed Classes also.
  • It also contained provision for representation of Muslims, Sikhs and Europeans.
  • It aimed to divide India on a communal basis.
  • Gandhiji underwent a fast in protest against this Award.
  • Political leaders like Madan Mohan Malviya, M.C. Raja and B.R. Ambedkar protested against this communal Award.
  • In the end they succeeded in hammering out an agreement, known as the Poona Pact.

Poona Pact (24 Sep 1932)

  • According to this pact, the idea of separate electorate to Depressed Classes was abandoned but in is place seats reserved for them in the provincial legislatures were increased from 71 in the Award to 148, and in the central legislature to 18% of the total.
  • The fast of Gandhiji ended with the Poona Pact.
  • The Poona Pact between caste Hindus and the Depressed Classes agreed upon against electorate.

The Government of India Act,1935 :

  • The Simon Commission report submitted in 1930 formed the foundation for the Government of India Act, 1935.
  • The significant aspects of the Act were Provision for the establishment of a ”Federation of India” to be made up of both British India and some or all of the princely states.
  • It granted a large measure of autonomy to the provinces of British India.
  • Direct elections were introduced.
  • Sindh was separated from Bombay and Burma was separated from India.
  • Bihar and Orissa were separated two different provinces.
  • Federal Court was established.
  • Congress opposed the Act, but contested the elections when the constitution was introduced on April 1, 1937, and formed ministers, first in 6 provinces and then in another 2.

Lahore Resolution (24 March 1940)

  • The Lahore Resolution was prepared by Muslim League Working Committee and was presented by A.K. Fazlul Huq.
  • It was a political resolution drafted between 22nd and 24th March 1940. The resolution asked for a greater Muslim autonomy within British India.

August Offer Linlithgow offer (8 Aug 1940)

  • On 8 August 1940, the Viceroy Linlithgow proposed August offer according to which the goal of British Government was to establish Dominion States in India.
  • August offer accepted the framing of new constitution will be the responsibility of the Indians.
  • The President of Congress Maulana Abul Kalam Azad rejected this offer as it at bringing the Congress in the ongoing World War.
  • However the August offer was unsuccessful as it cannot gain India’s cooperation in World War.

The Cripps Mission (March 1942)

  • In 1942, British realized that to gain India’s cooperation in World War it was very important to settle the terms with Indian leaders.
  • The situation worsened when Japan occupied the entire South-East Asia and was moving towards India’s borders.
  • To get India’s support British Government sent Sir Stafford Cripps, a member of British Cabinet to India.
  • Cripps proposed to give a dominion status to India after the World War but the leaders rejected his proposals which led to failure of the Cripp’s Mission.
  • ‘A post-dated Cheque of a crumbling bank’ was Gandhiji’s remarks on the Cripps Mission proposals.

Quit India Movement (1942)

  • Quit India Movement was launched at the Bombay session of the Congress on 8 August 1942. Mahatma Gandhi made a call to ‘Do or Die’ in his Quit India Speech.
  • Gandhiji asked his countrymen that we shall free India from British or die in the attempt to do so.
  • On 9 August 1942, Gandhiji and other leaders of Congress were arrested without trial. Violence spread throughout the country, Government offices were destroyed, telegraph wires were cut.
  • British arrested thousands of leaders, and kept them in jail until 1945.
  • The movement however failed to in its objectives due to weak coordination, heavy-handed suppression and the lack of a clear-cut programme of action.

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